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曲奇

曲奇 
曲奇
(Cookie) www.18art.com

曲奇的来历和制法
曲奇饼在美国加拿大解释为细少而扁平的蛋榚式的饼干。它的名字是由德文koekje来的,意为"细少的蛋榚"。这个字在英式英语主要用作分辨美式饼干如"朱古力饼干"。第一次制造曲奇是由数片细少的蛋榚组合而成。据考据,是由伊朗人发明的。 www.18art.com

制法


不同的种类的曲奇会有不同的软硬度。有些曲奇甚至没有完全煮透。曲奇有很多不同风格,如糖味, 香料味,巧克力味, 牛油味, 花生酱味, 核桃味或干水果味.

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曲奇的制造方法大致可以总结为以下的理论。尽管不同的曲奇各有特色,它们的煮法却大同小异,皆是以大量的水作凝聚力量。这些水份用来使底饼变得尽可能薄(在这种情况下称为"batter"),并能容许泡泡出现。而且在之后会加入大量的牛油和蛋,因其含有大量的油,这使得曲奇能在微波炉煮完。 #$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$%

烘过的蛋榚没有太多的水份。与其蒸发及增厚混合物,不如让其留下,使泡泡饱和而由蛋中的少量水份处逃离,而二氧化碳会因加热而释放。这个饱和过程制造了曲奇最吸引人的特性,就是爽快的口感。 www.18art.com

种类

曲奇饼的制法有以下数种,

* drop cookies,需将饼干糊用汤匙舀起滴落烤盘上;

* rolled cookies,是将拌好的饼干糊用杆面棍杆平,再用cookie cutter(切压饼干的模型)切压出各种形状;

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* refrigerator cookies,是较干的饼干糊滚成棒状放入冰箱冰过之后才做成饼;

* filled cookies,是饼干糊用手揉成圆球再包入果酱馅心。


In the United States and Canada, a cookie (sometimes spelled cooky) is a small, flat baked cake.

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Its name derives from the Dutch word koekje which means little cake, and arrived in the English language via the Scots language, rather than directly from the Dutch. In Scottish English the word denotes a small scone-like cake or bun.

The word cookie in English is used mainly to identify American-style biscuits such as "Chocolate-Chip Cookies". Cookies were first made from little pieces of cake batter that were cooked separately in order to test oven temperature. The ancestor of the cookie is said to have come from Persia according to many sources.

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They can be baked until crisp or only long enough that they stay soft, depending on the type of cookie. Some cookies are not cooked at all. Cookies are made in a vast variety of styles, using an array of possible ingredients including sugars, spices, chocolate, butter, peanut butter, nuts or dried fruits. #3$$#%%%%%%%6$

A general theory of cookies may be formulated this way. Despite their descent from cakes and other sweetened breads, the cookie in almost all its forms have abandoned water as a medium for cohesion. Water in cakes serves to make the base (in the case of cakes called 'batter') as thin as possible, which allows the bubbles – responsible for a cake's fluffiness – to form better. In the cookie the agent of cohesion has become some variation of the theme of oil. Oils, be they in the form of butter, egg yolks, vegetable oils or lard are much more viscous than water and evaporate freely at a much higher temperature than water. Thus a cake made with butter or eggs instead of water is far denser after removal from the oven. www.18art.com

Oils in baked cakes do not behave as water in the finished product. Rather than evaporating and thickening the mixture, they remain, saturating the bubbles of escaped gasses from what little water there might have been in the eggs, if added, and the carbon dioxide released by heating the baking powder. This saturation produces the most texturally attractive feature of the cookie, and indeed all fried foods: crispness saturated with a moisture (namely oil) that does not sink into it. #$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$%

Obviously there is some variation in that some cookies are purposely undercooked to retain a water-moist center.

Cookies are broadly classified according to how they are formed, including at least these categories:

Drop cookies are made from a relatively soft dough that is dropped by spoonfuls onto the baking sheet. During baking, the mounds of dough spread and flatten. Chocolate chip cookies are an example of drop cookies. #3$$#%%%%%%%6$

Refrigerator cookies are made from a stiff dough that is refrigerated to become even stiffer. The dough is typically shaped into cylinders which are sliced into round cookies before baking.

Molded cookies are also made from a stiffer dough that is molded into balls or cookie shapes by hand before baking. Snickerdoodles are an example of molded cookies. www.18art.com

Rolled cookies are made from a stiffer dough that is rolled out and cut into shapes with a cookie cutter. Gingerbread men are an example.

Pressed cookies are made from a soft dough that is extruded from a cookie press into various decorative shapes before baking. Spritzgebäck are an example of a pressed cookie.
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Bar cookies consist of batter or other ingredients that are poured or pressed into a pan (sometimes in multiple layers), and cut into cookie-sized pieces after baking. Brownies are an example of a batter-type bar cookie, while Rice Crispie treats are a bar cookie that doesn't require baking, perhaps similar to a cereal bar. In British English, bar cookies are known as "tray bakes". #$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$%

Commercially-produced cookies include many varieties of sandwich cookies filled with marshmallow, jam, or icing, as well as cookies covered with chocolate which may more closely resemble a type of confectionery.

Some specific types of cookies are:

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Oatmeal Chocolate Chip Cookies

Chocolate chip cookies

Newtons fruit chewy cookies

Ginger snaps

Oreo sandwich cookies

Snickerdoodles are soft cinnamon-dusted cookies of New English origin.

Peanut butter cookies #$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$%

shortbread

Anzac biscuit

sugar cookie

wafer

fortune cookie

biscotti

Spritzgebäck

Oatmeal Raisin

Gingerbread

Brussels

Vanilla Crisps

材料:奶油250g、糖120g、盐1/4t、蛋1个、低筋面粉360g、香草精1/4小匙、牛奶3大匙;

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做法:奶油+糖+盐打到松发,再加蛋搅打均匀

筛入低粉加入牛奶及香草精,拌匀成软面糊

再发挥你个人的创意(或用挤花带)作成形状

即可以预热至190度的烤箱温度烘烤12分左右(放在烤箱上层)

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